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In this essay we reflect on the eleven years that has passed Downloaded by [ Our task now is to draw from strategies and tactics that have worked in the past, and invent new ones to better achieve the aspirations of racial coherence and the need to resign and re sign the racial contract Mills.
Toward that end, we continue our dialogue in search for a coherent rhetoric on race, one that considers adaptive racism and aspires to rewrite the racial contract.
As in our earlier essays, we draw upon diverse and sometimes divergent perspectives to explore the problems and possibilities of racial reconciliation in the twenty-first century. Can racism be remedied by rhetoric, or is it a problem constrained by the psychodynamics of a problematic moral epistemology characterized by material, spiritual, and epistemological incoherence 6?
In what follows we write together separately, with Mark McPhail extending his theory of adaptive racism and David Frank describing a rhetoric of adaptive antiracism. Heifetz describes an adaptive challenge as one grounded in an underlying, unacknowledged, or unspoken belief or set of assumptions. It challenges the widely held assumption that racism is a product of ignorance, or that it can be remedied through any technical means: Instead, it recognizes racism as a shame-based psychological phenomenon Rhetoric Review that is normative in Western societies by virtue of the counterfactual character of the moral and epistemological beliefs and values espoused and enacted by those societies.
In other words, guilt assumes that an individual has done something wrong: Shame assumes that the individual is essentially bad. The state of being an agent of the wrong, however, reinforces adaptive impulses and results in denial, projection, and an investment in innocence and moral neutrality. As the historical agents of racism and the beneficiaries of the privileges it creates, whites know both consciously and unconsciously that their professed core beliefs, such as equality, freedom, and justice, do not cohere with their Downloaded by [ Even more troubling, the attitudes and beliefs that undermined the Obama presidency have, I believe, fueled the rise of Donald Trump.
These attitudes and beliefs are reflected both implicitly and explicitly in the rhetorical tactics of Donald Trump and his followers: The denial that President Obama was born in the U. All of these reflect the defining characteristics of an adaptive racism, one presciently described by Golden and Rieke in their suggestion that racism is a psychiatric, rather than rhetorical problem. These impulses are characterized by a psychological resistance to social and institutional change that is grounded in the incorrect belief that racism is an aberration in American society, a product of ignorance that motivates a minority of individuals to enact violent or discriminatory behavior.
They also reflect an underlying belief, expressed historically in the traditional racism of slavery and segregation, that the lives of black people have no intrinsic value. Couched in the language Downloaded by [ Acknowledging the Racial Contract, Mills argues, means accepting that many of the most basic beliefs that we hold in this society in terms of the values that we espouse and the epistemologies we embrace are at best questionable, and at worst fundamentally false: That is, they do not cohere with actual lived realities.
This is the task that my colleague, David Frank, will now pursue in response to my analysis. The trajectory of his explanation has unfolded over time, drawing from the insights of Lacan, Heifetz, Mills, Gresson, and a host of scholars from a number Rhetoric Review of disciplines. His first book is more optimistic about the possibility of racial rapprochement through rhetoric than his more recent work, which confronts a racism that is deep and capable of mutation.
The most recent strains of racism, McPhail cogently argues, is adaptive; it is not simply anchored to ignorance but is grounded in a set of unspoken and unacknowledged beliefs that resist moral suasion and rhetorical intervention. Adaptive racism, McPhail argues, allows whites to acknowledge racism, but to declare they had no role in creating and feeding the disease.
Guilt and shame are foundational to his approach and explains the mechanism for the adaptive qualities of racism—that whites, particularly those who are affluent, have adapted to racism by acknowledging it is wrong and inconsistent with their values, and that they are innocent of fostering or contributing to the factors supporting it. Less affluent whites who have not adapted their racism to the abstract principles of equality, remain committed to overt declarations of racial intolerance and are then blamed by affluent whites as the source of racism in the U.
Downloaded by [ The wealthy and moderate whites could then declare themselves innocent of racism while supporting the impersonal institutions that sustain white privilege. The less affluent whites lacking a college education make up the audience for Donald Trump.
And this audience is suffering. Whites at midlife are now dying at higher rates than African Americans Case and Deaton. Trump is speaking for white Americans who feel abandoned and that they are losing their country. They express their suffering with overt and unvarnished expressions of racism, which Trump echoes and which the Republican elite reject. What, then, can be done about these most recent mutations?
McPhail is pessimistic that it can, and given the current state of race relations in this country, he has significant empirical support, which was reinforced almost daily by Trump during the presidential campaign, that the disease of racism is a psychological rather than rhetorical problem; one resisting the powers of persuasion and reason.
His case is compelling. I do, however, believe that rhetoric has the capacity to develop a program of adaptive antiracism that accounts for the most recent mutations of racism.
Without question, Lacan does shed some light on the psycho-dynamics of racism. Yet, Lacan does not give up on rhetoric. Contact between the races—between whites and blacks—according to Lacan is enacted through rhetoric. How then should rhetoric be deployed? Prier documents the sophisticated and multifaceted campaign waged by the black community to change the name in which all the available means of persuasion were used as the advocates adapted to different rhetorical situations and audiences.
As a result of the name change, Prier argues that the community and the school were strengthened. This contract favors whites over people of color and needs to be renegotiated on the basis of racial equity. With compassion, those seeking to combat the toxic powers of adaptive racism can use the insights offered by McPhail and other scholars on complicity and coherence, racial innocence and recovery, and atonement and reconciliation, to explain and then counter the muta- tions of racism.
The words of president DeGioia speak directly to the types of reflection and atonement called for by scholars of reconciliation: When we asked Mr. The election of Donald Trump to the Presidency of the U.
DeGioia and Georgetown University stands in stark contrast to the adaptive racism that has created the reality of a Trump Symposium: Rhetoric, Race, and Resentment presidency. They also signal the viability of an adaptive theory of racism, and the need for a practice of adaptive antiracism. An adaptive antiracism cannot compromise, equivocate, and engage in ambivalence when it comes to challenging and rooting out white supremacy, and that begins by overcoming the debilitating shame sustained by the denial that America is a fundamentally racist nation.
As Toni Morrison explains: On Election Day, how eagerly so many white voters—both the poorly educated and the well educated—embraced the shame and fear sowed by Donald Trump.
The candidate whose company has been sued by the Justice Department for not renting apartments to black people. The candidate who questioned whether Barack Obama was born in the United States, and who seemed to condone the beating of a Black Lives Matter protester at a campaign rally. The candidate who kept black workers off the floors of his casinos.
Morrison Rhetoric Review Perhaps the resurgence of white supremacy signaled by the ascent of Donald Trump will awaken those white Americans genuinely committed to racial reconciliation from the dogmatic slumber of denial and innocence. As we have wrestled with the rhetorical problems and possibilities of the American dilemma of race, we have both separately and together called upon our colleagues in the discipline of rhetoric to assertively investigate and interrogate the discursive dimensions of racial difference and identity, and we reiterate that call here.
So we again ask as we did in , that rhetorical scholars and teachers engage this moment in history as an opportunity for Downloaded by [ In the essay we concluded with the words of Robert Penn Warren, whose poetry provided us with a metaphor for our struggle to understand and comprehend the meanings and manifestation of races, perhaps the greatest myth of our own making.
What is often neglected in daily interaction, including teaching, are the myriad injustices seen and absorbed by youth.
What does the belief in social justice and social change tell us and require of us? What actions are they pursuing in an attempt to engage their own dance of agency? Bacon, John. Case, Anne, and Angus Deaton. Chait, Jonathan.
Think Like a Champion
Also, Hillary is a Racist. Collins, David, et al. Georgetown University, Washington, DC, Dreher, Rod. Editorial Board. The Washington Post. Frank, David A. Columbus, Ohio: C. Merrill Pub. Gresson, Aaron David. New York: P.
Lang, Heifetz, Ronald A. Leadership without Easy Answers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, Boston: Harvard Business P, Isenberg, Nancy. New York, New York: Viking, It was a way to make my mark outside my father's considerable sphere of influence, in an industry where his name wouldn't open any doors or lead directly to any opportunities.
In the ultimate irony, he ended up downloading a modeling agency. Any successes I managed to find would be totally on me. If I failed, it would be on me, too. That was appealing to me as a kid—and I realized it was still appealing to me as a young adult. Whatever I did next, after school, I wanted to own it. To earn it. I didn't want anything to be handed to me, and it took hearing what sounded like doubt from my father to get me to question my decision to follow in his footsteps. At the time, I didn't particularly love the idea of working in fashion, but I was determined to make my way on my own terms, on my own strengths.
I went from being completely confident and pumped about my upcoming job to being completely unsure of myself—all on the back of this otherwise positive, affirming phone call from Anna Wintour. To be sure, it wasn't the call itself that left me reeling, it was my father's reaction to it.
It was the thought that my ultimate mentor might be trying not all that subtly! One day, just before graduation, I finally brought it up with him again.
I wanted to know what the hell he'd been thinking when he said I should consider Anna's offer. I wanted you to see for yourself how serious you were about it. You know that as well as anyone. I've taken every chance you've given me to work at the company. Summer jobs, whatever. I've learned everything I can learn without actually being there and living it firsthand.
I've been studying it at school. I just thought we should both be sure that you weren't doing all these things because you felt that was what was expected of you.
If real estate isn't the right fit for you, I wanted you to know it was okay with me. And it was. Here I'd been thinking my father didn't really believe I had what it took to make it in real estate, and all along he'd just been testing my resolve.
Beneath that feeling, though, I realized I was also a little pissed that he'd put me through those doubts and worries, but the feeling of relief won out. And it was a relief for him, too, to hear how passionate I was about wanting to work as a developer. As a boss, he wouldn't want me around if I wasn't dead certain about my path. As a father, he wouldn't want me to move forward on that road for the wrong reasons. He wanted his children to have passion for whatever we chose to do.
Real estate was his passion, but it didn't have to be ours. As long as we cared about what we were doing, we'd have the focus and determination to get our bearings and then thrive—in any career. I'd heard my father speak many times about the importance of loving what you do. It was one of the great themes in our house as I was growing up.
But now that I was about to graduate from college and take my first real job, his message really hit home.
Tips for Interviews - Ivanka Trump | The Trump Card: Playing to
He didn't want to see me spin my wheels in a profession I wasn't passionate about. He believes that when you bring your heart and soul to a job, you can't lose— but when you don't, you'll always lose to someone who does.
Bottom line: he believed that if I wasn't prepared to eat, drink, and sleep real estate, I shouldn't enter the field. And it took hearing it from him that one final time, in the context of the unexpected phone call from Anna Wintour, to get me to realize that I believed the very same thing. It was a two-part worry. First, they had to land a job once they got out of school; and second, they had to make an immediate splash once they got the position so that they could get off to a great start and ultimately angle themselves for promotion.
The key to both objectives, I realized then as now, is strong interviewing and interpersonal skills. I can't emphasize this enough. You'll need to call on these skills not only to land a job but to do well once you start working, because the way you carry yourself in meetings, the way you interact with your bosses, the way you collaborate with your new peers will have everything to do with how you're viewed at your place of employment.
It's all interviewing, of a kind. It's basic communication. As a relatively young woman who now works in upper management, I have a unique, twentysomething perspective on the ways young people go through these particular motions. I'm young enough to remember how tough the interviewing process was for me and for a lot of my friends back in school and fortunate enough to occupy a post where I get to see from a management perspective how recent graduates handle the transition.
A lot of candidates don't do such a good job of it, I'm afraid. Now that I'm on the other side of the desk, I've met many applicants who looked impressive on paper but couldn't seem to get out of their own way in an interview.
Frequently bought together
In a competitive business environment where MBAs are fighting over entry-level positions, there's no longer any room to make a poor impression in an interview. I often find myself sitting across the table from someone very close to my own age. That's a bit unusual, I suppose. I mean, a lot of my friends are still pounding the pavement looking for their dream jobs— actually, in a lousy economy, many of them would settle for any job, at least for the short term.
Yet here I am, interviewing other freshly minted graduates on the prowl for dream jobs of their own. I understand how daunting the interview process can seem for a young person just starting out I get an earful of horror stories from my unemployed girlfriends every week! A word of advice: your interview is about you.
It's not about the school you went to, what you majored in, what your GPA was, or who your parents happen to be or know.
Once you land an interview, you must light it up with your knowledge, confidence, and enthusiasm. With you. Sort of way but in a pleasing, gee-that's-a-wonderfully-unexpected-turn! Tell that person something he or she might not usually hear and show why you'd be an interesting person to have around the office.
Be charming, but be yourself. That shouldn't be so hard, should it? Keep in mind that in addition to evaluating whether you possess the skills and experience needed for the position, interviewers are also assessing whether you are someone they could work with.
Are you agreeable, affable, fun, interesting? Do you come across as confident, intelligent, capable, curious? The interview is not just about whether you can do the job but how you might approach it. At some level, you have to think the whether is a foregone conclusion. You wouldn't be having the conversation if you weren't perceived to be qualified.
But are you a person this company wants to represent it in a boardroom or in interactions with clients? Will other employees look forward to meeting you in an elevator or by the water cooler? Or will you be a constant drag on their time and energy and patience?
Remember, the person across the table is sizing you up and measuring all these intangibles, so you'd do well to bring the very best aspects of your personality into the room. Another few words, as long as I'm on it: Don't be late. This probably falls into the "duh! It's unforgivable, really. I've heard all sorts of excuses, and they're just that—excuses.
If your interview is at three in the afternoon and you think it will take you a little over an hour to get to the location, leave at one. Give yourself a cushion. You don't want to be stuck in traffic or sitting on a stalled train fifteen minutes before your interview.
If you manage to arrive just under the wire, you'll look frazzled—not the best way to start such an important meeting. A nice fringe benefit to this strategy is that arriving early sends a powerful signal that you're organized and grateful for the opportunity, traits every employer seeks in a young hire. Plus, you can use the extra time to get settled. Use the restroom and make sure your hair is combed and your shirt hasn't come untucked.
Text a friend. Take a walk around the block and listen to some mellow music on your iPod.
The Trump Card: Playing to Win in Work and Life
Do whatever you can to steady your nerves without drawing any unwanted attention to yourself from potential coworkers. It's not enough to have it in your bag or tucked away in a folder. It's the one certainty in this whole transaction.
If you have only five minutes of someone's time, don't waste one-tenth of it on an unnecessary search. Long after your interview has concluded, it'll be the one prompt your interviewer has to remind her of your meeting. Make sure it's a crisp, clean, professional-looking copy that nicely supports the positive impression you hoped to make. Cover your shortcomings. If your hands are clammy, don't shake hands. If you're worried about your breath, don't stand too close—or, even better, suck on a breath mint before you start the meeting.
If you tend to stammer when you get nervous and can't think what to say, write out a few simple declarative sentences about your goals or experiences and commit them to memory.
Some people are natural interviewees, while others are overwhelmed and intimidated. If you fall into the latter group, find some ways to bolster your confidence before the interview.
Once you get going, it's difficult to regroup from an awkward start. One good way to do this is to actually stage a mock interview with one of your friends, to help you get comfortable.
It might seem goofy, but it's just another version of the trial run I wrote about earlier.
Also, tell yourself that the person interviewing you was not up at two the night before worrying about this meeting. She didn't leave early to make sure she would be on time. She probably wasn't even thinking about the interview at all until a few minutes before it started. At the same time, remember that she is interested in what you have to say, and concluding that you are indeed the perfect candidate for the job would certainly make her life at work a little easier.
Knowing these things should help you to relax and keep the interview in perspective. You might have all the potential in the world, but if you're unable to communicate your abilities confidently and coherently in the alloted time, you won't give the interviewer a reason to hire you.
Dress the part. What you wear will have "first impression" written all over it, so choose wisely and sell the image you want. Personally, I think less of a candidate when he or she is dressed too casually.
An interview is a formal process, so dress accordingly. Guys must understand that unless they are applying for a job in professional sports, they should not wear sneakers.
The Trump Card
For women, it's a mistake to wear flip-flops, tank tops, or short skirts. It doesn't matter how hot it is outside; those pieces are never part of an appropriate interview ensemble. Like it or not, your physical appearance will say an awful lot about you—and you don't want it to say anything awful. Basic black is always appropriate. Stay away from short hemlines and exposed cleavage. Also, make sure your hair is presentable no sloppy ponytails! Any makeup should be light and professional.
Wear a suit. A classic charcoal gray, navy blue, or black suit is always a smart choice. Don't try to stand out with noisy pinstripes or wonky colors. Your goal should be to appear subtle and sophisticated, not loud or flashy.
In the it-goes-without-saying department, make sure there are no holes in your socks, buttons missing from your shirt, or anything to suggest an unkempt, unpressed appearance. And leave your jewelry at home, other than watches or wedding bands. Traditional business environments, such as financial institutions, law firms, government agencies, and Fortune companies, call for traditional business attire. But if you're interviewing at a public relations firm with a client roster made up of rappers and artists, a sports jacket and a skinny tie might be more fitting.
Lean toward formal. You might feel uncomfortable wearing a suit while you're being interviewed by some guy in jeans and sneakers, but at least he'll know that you're serious about the job. Turn your nose "off. I never like it when someone comes into my office smelling like the perfume aisle at the department store. Smell is subjective, and you don't want your perfume or cologne to overwhelm the person across the table.
Avoid it. This caution runs to ambient smells as well. Steer clear. Do your homework. Learn everything you can about the company before you sit down for your interview. Know its history, its mission, and its competitors, as well as the names of its CEO and top executives. Be able to recognize the company's top products, services, and accomplishments, as well as its disappointments and missteps. If it's a publicly held company, know where its stock closed the night before your interview. Here again, there are no excuses for being ill prepared.
These days, almost every company has a web site, and a Google search will turn up dozens of articles about the business. Read them. Learn how the company is structured, so you can talk knowledgeably about where you might fit into the corporate structure. Have your answers ready. There are several questions that are asked in the majority of interviews.
By preparing for these questions in advance, you will be able to provide the answers that best reflect you, rather than grabbing at the first thing that pops into your mind. What web sites do you visit frequently? Have your questions ready, too. Just before the end of your meeting, you'll be asked if you have any questions about the job or the company. Count on this. It comes up at the end of virtually every job interview, yet I'm stunned by the number of times I've gotten a feeble response like "no, I can't think of anything.
They know the question is coming, right? That's why I tell people to be armed with at least one thoughtful question going into each interview, even if she or he already knows the answer. The question doesn't have to be too complex or revealing, but it should demonstrate that you have a basic understanding of the dynamics of the firm.
That said, be sure to avoid asking questions relating to the company's retirement plan, vacation policy, or dress code. Asking about these things in a preliminary interview will make it appear that you're more interested in the benefits than the job itself. Wait until you get the job to pursue this line. Plus, if you drink too much coffee, you might have to suffer through the interview in discomfort, or excuse yourself midmeeting to use the restroom—not the best move if you can avoid it.
Carrying all that stuff with you into the meeting will make you appear disorganized. They tend to make employers cringe. At least, they tend to make me cringe.
Ideally, I like it when a candidate does about 80 percent of the talking to my 20 percent. If I have to carry any more of the conversation, I start to think I'll always have to be drawing information out of this person.
Even if things are going well, don't overstay your welcome by continuing to chat. Of course, you don't want to keep looking at your watch or putting it out that you have someplace else to be, but you can often get a good read on this with a simple statement such as "you must be terribly busy.
I don't want to take up too much of your afternoon. And remember, a follow-up thank-you note is always appropriate.The Trump Card: Its sudden visibility provided an opportunity for students and faculty representing marginalized groups to press for needed campus reform.
With me, it probably looked as if I were in the outside lane, way ahead of the rest of the pack before the race even started.
What, then, can be done about these most recent mutations? I go to the movies or out with my friends, but I also make my work a priority.
Who can still taste the anxiety of speaking up for the first time in a big meeting. This leaves the EU with two options: Mexican imports of natural gas continue to outpace most projections.