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Power Plant Engineering. Front Cover · P. K. Nag. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, - Electric power-plants - pages. 14 Reviews. bernasungueta.tk - download Power Plant Engineering book online at best prices in India on bernasungueta.tk Read Power Plant Engineering book reviews & author details and. The fourth edition of this hallmark text continues to provide the right blend of theory, design and practice. Analytical and theoretical treatment of the concepts.
What are the advantages of adopting multi-pressure condenser over single-pressure condenser? Why are feedwater heaters of smaller size plants installed vertically, while larger size plants go for horizontally installed feedwater heaters?
Whether valves should be erected in vertical pipe lines or horizontal pipe lines, in other words whether spindle of valves should be horizontal or vertical? Fifty years back smoke coming out from the stack could be visible, yet within a decade or so and onwards the stack exhaust had to be made invisible.
The question why and how? Why is wet bottom ash handling from a coal fired boiler no longer preferred to meet environmental norms? From techno-economic consideration whether boiler feed pump should be electric motor driven or steam turbine driven. Why are SF6 circuit breakers preferred to minimum-oil circuit breakers? In smaller size plants generators used to be cooled with air, but a generator of larger size plants adopts hydrogen cooling.
What prompted such a change in the cooling medium and what are the added advantages?
Lessons in Power Plant Engineering (Or How to Condense 40 Years into 600 Pages)
What are the advantages of selecting each control system and which system should be suitable for control of a specific parameter? Up to MW unit capacity main steam flow used to be measured with the help of flow nozzles installed in main steam lines. Units larger than MW capacity never use flow nozzles to measure main steam flow. Two questions arise why flow nozzles are not required and how main steam flow is measured in units larger than MW unit capacity?
These are just some of the questions I faced during my professional career both at a design office as while working out in the field. Answers to these questions were so fascinating that I still cherish the efficacy of each of the answers, and shared my experiences with my peers and associates whenever there was an opportunity.
Besides the above, I also faced different types of queries from fellow students at technical institutes and from operating personnel during various training programs.
I made utmost effort to clarify all queries to their full satisfaction. These ranged from; What factors influence selection of type and size of a boiler? What is fuel? The depletion of these resources often tends to be irreversible since bulk of our population depends on these natural resources.
Depletion of these natural resources such as fuel, fodder, and housing power plant; 1. The power plant itself must be useful economically and environmental friendly to the society. The present book is oriented to conventional as well as non-conventional energy generation.
While the stress is on energy efficient system regards conventional power systems viz. The subject as a whole can be also stated as modern power plants for power viz electricity generation in 21st century. The word modern means pertaining to time. At present due to energy crisis the first goal is to conserve energy for future while the second step is to The main equipment for the generation of electric power is generator. When coupling it to a prime mover runs the generator, the electricity is generated.
The type of prime move determines, the type of power plants. The major power plants, which are discussed in this book, are, 1. Steam power plant 2.
Diesel power plant 3. Gas turbine power plant 4. Nuclear power plant 5.
The equation for work is the force, which is the mass time the gravity times the distance. Heat is the ability to change the temperature of an object or phase of a substance.
For example, heat changes a solid into a liquid or a liquid into a vapor. Heat is part of the definition of energy. Another part of the definition of energy is radiation, which is the light and energy emitted in the form of waves traveling at the speed of light. Energy is measured in units of calorie, quad, and joule. A kilocalorie is the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from The quad unit is used to measure energy needed for big countries.
The final measurement of energy is joules. Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving quality of life. Commercial Energy accounts for a little over half of the total energy used in the Country, the rest coming from non-commercial resources like cow-dung, fuel wood and agricultural waste.
Though the share of these non-commercial sources has been coming down, consumption has increased almost dou- ble since These renewable, non-commercial sources have been used extensively for hundreds of years but in a primitive and ineffective way. Indiscriminate use of non-commercial energy sources is leading to an energy crisis in the rural areas.
Seventh Plan laid emphasis on the development and accelerated utilisa- tion of renewable energy sources in rural and urban areas. A major Policy of the Government is directed towards increasing the use of coal in household and of electricity in transport sector in order to reduce dependence on oil, which is becoming scarce gradually. The Government has formulated an energy policy with objectives of ensuring adequate energy supply at minimum cost, achieving self-sufficiency in energy supplies and protecting environment from adverse impact of utilising energy resources in an injudicious manner.
Main elements of the policy are: Accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy resources-oil, coal, hydro and nu- clear power; 2.
Intensification of exploration to increase indigenous production of oil and gas; 3. Management of demand for oil and other forms of energy; 4.
Energy conservation and management; 5. Optimisation of utilisation of existing capacity in the country; 6. Development and exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy requirements of rural communities; 7. Intensification of research and development activities in new and renewable energy sources; and 8. Organisation of training far personnel engaged at various levels in the energy sector. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs of the society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of Government viz.
Nuclear Energy De- velopment is being geared up by the Department of Atomic Energy to contribute significantly to overall energy availability in the Country.
Energy Conservation is being given the highest-priority and is being used as a tool to bridge the gaps between demand and supply of energy.
An autonomous body, namely Energy Management Centre, has been set up on ten April, , as a nodal agency for energy conservation projects. In addition, gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy that combines to produce mechanical energy. Nuclear energy produces heat by fission on nuclei, which is generated by heat engines. There are two processes in Nuclear energy fission and fusion.
In fission, the nuclei of uranium or plutonium atoms are split with the release of energy. In fusion, energy is released when small nuclei combine or fuse. The fission process is used in all present nuclear power plants, because fusion cannot be controlled.
Power Plant Engineering
Nuclear energy is used to heat steam engines. A Nuclear power plant is a steam engine using uranium as its fuel, and it suffers from low efficiency. Electricity powers most factories and homes in our world.
Some things like flashlights and Game Boys use electricity that is stored in batteries as chemical energy. Other items use electricity that comes from an electrical plug in a wall socket. Electricity is the conduction or transfer of energy from one place to another. The electricity is the flow of energy.
Atoms have electrons circling then, some being loosely attached. When electrons move among the atoms of matter, a current of electricity is created. Thermal energy is kinetic and potential energy, but it is associated with the random motion of atoms in an object. The kinetic and potential energy associated with this random microscopic motion is called thermal energy.
Each day, the oceans absorb enough heat from the sun to equal the energy contained in billion barrels of oil Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems. Chemical energy is a form of energy that comes from chemical reactions, in which the chemical reaction is a process of oxidation. Potential energy is released when a chemical reaction occurs, which is called chemical energy.
A car battery is a good example, because the chemical reaction produces voltage and current to start the car. When a plant goes through a process of photosynthesis, what the plant is left with more chemical energy than the water and carbon dioxide.
Chemical energy is used in science labs to make medicine and to product power from gas. Radiant energy exists in a range of wavelengths that extends from radio waves that many be thousands of meters long to gamma rays with wavelengths as short as a million-millionth 10— 12 of a meter. Radiant energy is converted to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. The next two types of energy go hand and hand, gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. The term energy is motivated by the fact that potential energy and kinetic energy are different aspects of the same thing, mechanical energy.
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
An object in motion, whether it be vertical or horizontal motion, has kinetic energy. There are different forms of kinetic energy vibrational, which is the energy due to vibrational motion, rotational, which is the energy due to rotational motion, and transnational, which is the energy due to motion from one location to the other.
This equation shows that the kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to the square of its speed. Energy is thus required to produce power.
We need energy to run power plants to generate electricity. We need power to run our appliances, and heat our homes. Without energy we would not have electricity. Demand for it, therefore, has been growing at a rate faster than other forms of energy.
Power industry too has recorded a phenomenal rate of growth both in terms of its volume and technological sophistication over the last few decades. Elec- tricity plays a crucial role in both industrial and agricultural sectors and, therefore, consumption of electricity in the country is an indicator of productivity and growth.
In view of this, power development has been given high-priority in development programme. The first steam station was set up in Calcutta in By the end of , the total capacity was mW, comprising. Hydro 74 mW, thermal 50 mW and diesel 6 mW. In , the total capacity goes to mW. There was very slow development during due to Second World War.
The total generation capacity was mW by the end of The development really started only after with the launching of the first five-year plan. These projects resulted in the stepping up of power generation. At the end of the First Plan, generation capacity stood at Emphasis in Second Plan was on development of basic and heavy industries and related need to step up power generation. Installed capacity at the end of Second Plan reached 57 lakh kw.
During the Third Plan period , emphasis was on extending power supply to rural areas. A significant development in this phase was emergence of Inter-state Grid System. The country was divided into Five Regions to promote power development on a Regional Basis.
A Regional Electricity Fourth Plan envisaged need for central participation in expansion of power generation programmes at strategic locations to supplement activities in the State Sector. Progress during the period covering Third Plan, three Annual Plans and Fourth Plan was substantial with installed capacity rising to During the Sixth Plan, total capacity addition of Achievement, however, has been The Seventh Plan power programme envisaged aggregate generating capacity of 22, mW in utilities.
During the Seventh Plan, Year wise commissioning of Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear Capacity added during to is given in. The Working Group on Power set up particularly the Planning Commission in the context of formulation of power programme for the Eighth Plan has recommended a capacity addition programme of 38, mW for the Eighth Plan period, out of which it is expected that the Central Sector Projects would add a capacity of 17, mW.
The programme for the first year of the Eighth Plan envisages generation of additional capacity of 4, The department is concerned with policy formulation, perspective planning, procuring of projects for investment decisions, monitoring of projects, training and manpower development, administration and enactment of Legislation in regard to power generation, transmission and distribution.
The depart-ment is also responsible for administration of the Electricity Supply Act, and the Indian Electricity Act, and undertakes all amendments thereto. The Electricity Supply Act, , forms basis of administrative structure of electricity industry. The act was amended in to enlarge scope and function of CEA and enable of creation of companies for generation of electricity.
The Central Electricity Authority advises Department of Power on technical, financial and economic matters. Act, , is also under administrative control of the Department of Power. Programmes of rural electrification are within the purview of Rural Electrification Corporation REC which is a financing agency. In addition to this, Energy Manage-ment Centre, an autonomous body, was established in collaboration with the European Economic Community, which is responsible for training, research, and information exchange between energy professionals.
Significant progress has been made in the expansion of transmission and distribution facilities in the Country. Total length of transmission lines of 66 kV and above increased from 10, ckt circuit km in December to 2. Highest transmission voltage in the Country at present is kV and above ckt km of kV lines had been constructed up to March, and about ckt km of these are in actual operation.
Prior to the Fourth Plan, Transmission Systems in the Country were developed more or less as state systems, as generating stations were built primarily in the State Sector. When State Transmission Systems had developed to a reasonable extent in the Third Plan, potentiality of inter-connected opera- tion of individual state systems with other neighboring systems within the region northern, western, southern, eastern and north-eastern was thought of. Fairly well inter-connected systems at voltage of kV with progressive overlay of kV are presently available in all regions of the Country except North-eastern Region.
With creation of Two Generation Corporations, namely National Thermal Power Corporation and National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation in , the Centre had started playing an increasingly larger role in the development of grid systems. The kV transmission systems being constructed by these organisa-tions as part of their gen- eration projects, along with kV inter-state and inter-regional transmission lines would form part of the National Power Grid.
National Power Grid will promote integrated operation and transfer of power from one system to another with ultimate objective of ensuring optimum utilisation of resources in the Country. India now has well integrated Regional Power Systems and exchange of power is taking place regularly between a large numbers of state systems, which greatly facilitates better utilisation of existing capacity.
Unlike black oil, it is a non-conventional energy source. A part of the endless cycle in which moisture is raised by the sun, formed into clouds and then dropped back to earth to feed the rivers whose flow can be harnessed to produce hydroelectric power. Water as a source of power is non-polluting which is a prime requirement of power industry today.
The world hydel installed capacity as per estimate is only 65 million kW or 4. Still India has got enough hydel potential to develop to meet the increasing power needs of the nation. The abundant availability of water resources, its fairly even distribution and overall economy in developing this source of energy enhanced its development in India, The other factors responsible in its rapid development are indigenous technological skill, material and cheap labour. In the IX five-year plan; the Government considering the importance of this source has included a number of hydro-projects.
Lack of suitable. Site is an added problem for taking up hydro-projects.
Hydropower was once the dominant source of electrical energy in the world and still is in Canada, Norway and Switzerland. But its use has decreased in other countries since s, as relatively less expensive fuel was easily available. In the light of fuel scarcity and its up surging prices, the role of hydropower is again re-examined and more emphasis is being laid on waterpower development.
As per Mr. Small hydro-projects ranging from 10 to kW are becom- ing more feasible as standardization of major equipment reduces costs. India is yet to start in the field of micro-hydro projects, which is one major way for solving the present power problem. Hydro-projects generate power at low cost, it is non conventional, easy to manage, pollution free and makes no crippling demands on the transportation system.
But the major drawback is, it operates at the mercy of nature. Poor rainfall has on a number of occasions shown the dangers of over dependence on hydropower. Let rivers flow and let rains shower the earth with prosperity is the ancient prayer chanted by Riches and continued to be chanted even now. The development of hydropower systems as a back up for thermal systems has significant advan- tages.
The flexible operation of hydraulic turbines makes them suitable for. Peak load operation. There- fore, the development of hydropower is not only economical but it also solves the major problem of peak load. The present Indian policy of power development gives sufficient importance for the hydel-power development. The next important source for power generation is fuel in the form of coal, oil or gas. Unfortunately, the oil and gas resources are very much limited in India.
Only few power plants use oil or gas as a source of energy. India has to import most of the oil required and so it is not desirable to use it for power generation. The known resources of coal in India are estimated to be , million tonnes, which are localized in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
The present rate of annual production of coal is nearly million tonnes of which 40 million-tonnes are used for power generation.
Due to the large resources of coal available in the country, enough emphasis has been given for thermal Power plants in the IX plan period.
The location of hydel-power plants is mostly determined by the natural topography available and location of thermal plants is dictated by the source of fuel or transportation facilities available if the, power plant is to be located far from coalmines. For nuclear power plant any site can be selected paying due consideration to safety and load. India has to consider nuclear generation in places remote from coal mines and water power sites.
The states which are poor in natural resources and those which have little untapped conventional resources for future development have to consider the development of nuclear plants.
The nuclear fuel which is commonly used for nuclear power plants is uranium. Deposits of uranium have been located in Bihar and Rajasthan.
It is estimated that the present reserves of uranium available in country may be sufficient to sustain 10, mW power plants for its thorium into nuclear Indian lifetime. Another possible nuclear power source is thorium, which is abundant in this country, estimated at , tonnes. But the commercial use of this nuclear fuel is tied up with development of fast breeder reactor which converts energy economy must wait for the development of economic meth- ods for using thorium which is expected to be available before the end of twentieth century.
The major hurdle in the development of nuclear power in this country is lack of technical facility and foreign exchange required to download the main component of nuclear power plant. Bhabha had envisaged mW of power from nuclear reactors by —81 which was subsequently scaled down to a more realistic level of mW by Dr.
Sarabhai out of this only MW has materialized which is less than 1. Moreover the performance of nuclear plants has been satisfactory compared to thermal plants. The overall power scene in the country shows heavy shortages almost in all states.
Power Plant Engineering
The situation is going to be aggravated in coming years as the demand is increasing and the power industry is not keeping pace with the increasing demand. Many of the states in India depend to a large extent on hydro generation. The increase in demand has far outstripped the installation of new plants.
Also there is no central grid to distribute excess energy from one region to another. The experience in the operation of thermal plants is inadequate. All these have led to heavy shortages and severe hardship to people. Very careful analysis of the problem and proper planning and execution is necessary to solve the power crisis in our country.
Suitable hydrothermal mix, proper phasing of construction of new plants, training personnel in maintenance of thermal plants. If investments in coal and oil transport and other infrastructures are From a mere Rs. The installed generating capacity has grown ten-fold from mW in to mW in Of this, mW was in hydel, mW in thermal and less than mW in nuclear power stations.
The total number of power stations of 20 mW capacities and above at the end of March , was , of which 65 were hydel, 60 thermal and 2 nuclear.
Power generation rose from million kWh in —51 to million kWh in —79, i. The total users of electricity have risen from 15 lakhs in to akhs in — The per capita consumption of electricity rose from 18 kWh in —51 to kWh in — In spite of these measures, this industry is unable to meet the demands. Power shortages have become a recurrent feature in the country. Against an estimated requirement of million kWh in , the actual availability was only a million kWh a deficit of about million kWh or With the programme of large-scale industrialization and increased agricultural activity, the de- mand for power in the country is increasing at a rapid rate.
If the present trend continues, the demand for power by the end of year would be about to million kW.
Allowing for adequate reserve margins required for scheduled maintenance, a total generating capacity of about to million kW would be needed by the year to meet the anticipated demands. This would mean 8 to 10 fold increase of the existing capacity. Only proper development of hydel, thermal and nuclear resources of the country can achieve the required growth.
The major hydel potential is available in the northern region. Even if all the hydel potential is developed, it will not be possible to meet the growing demand. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement the hydel potentials with thermal. The coal deposits are rich and ample, though in terms of per capita it is hardly tonnes in India which is certainly poor compared with other countries as tonnes in China, tonnes in the U. This further requires the development of transportation facilities.
Therefore, it is also not possible to depend wholly on thermal power development. The consid- eration for the use of nuclear fuel for power production in future is equally essential particularly in those states, which are far away from coal resources and poor in hydel potential.
The future planning in the power development should aim at optimum exploitation of resources available so that power mix of hydel, thermal and nuclear is achieved. Another step to be taken in the power development industry is setting up super-thermal power plants the central sector at different places in the country. The super-thermal power stations are at Farakka, Ramagundam, Korba and Singrauli and these are supplying power for the past 20 years.
Presently all of them are supplying power through the national grid to deficit states. In our country even 20 mW hydro potentials have not been developed, whereas it appears to be advantageous to develop even 20 kW units.
Development of small hydro potentials as in China has, to a great extent, reduced the strain in existing plants. The development of biogas can ease the strain on oil supply to domestic users, which can other- wise diverted to power generation.
India receives large amount of solar radiation and photosynthesis is the process by which solar energy is converted into food and fuel by green plants. The land, which is presently not used either for agriculture or forest, can be used for energy plantation where average rainfall is 80 to cm per annum. With present Forest Tech- nology, planned production forestry offers an unusual opportunity.
The Government does not seriously think this phase of energy production but it looks a fruitful proposition.
As per the present planning of the Government, the problem of increased power demand will be solved only by proper mixed development of hydel, thermal and nuclear atleast during one more decade. The severity of the power problem can be partly solved by the conservation of power.
The problem can be partly solved by proper maintenance and good quality of fuel supply. The efficiency of the power plant operation is also defined as kWh generated per kW installed. The maximum kWh per annum per kW is If this utilisation is increased, need for new capacity for power genera- tion will be reduced.
Increasing load factors can reduce the capacity of the power industry. The proper planning to develop hydel, thermal and nuclear resources in India in addition to measures taken to reduce outages and with proper load management will definitely go a long way in meeting the increasing power demand of the country. The Authorized Capital of the corporation is Rs. The corporation is also executing transmission lines of total length of about 20, ckt.
NHPC has a shelf of projects ready with all statutory clearances awaiting Government Sanction for execution. These are under techno-economic appraisal by CEA. Two Mega Projects viz. The corporation has completed so far ckt kms of EHV transmission lines, along with the associated sub-stations. Besides, a giant transmission network encompassing ckt kms including KV class is also under execution under World Bank Assistance for transfer for power in the North- ern Region.
REC have given loans aggregating to Rs. Loans during —90 aggregated to Rs. Functions assigned to the corporation are: The corporation has Three Thermal Power Stations at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur with a total installed capacity derated of mw. The associated kV and kV transmission lines for supply power from this project to the constituent states of the region, namely; Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura, have also been completed. The society is responsible for coordinating training programmes of the various State Electricity Boards, Power stations, etc.
The institute possesses Highly Sophisticated Laboratories comparable to those in the Developed Countries. The corporation has an authorized Share Capital of Rs 1, crore. It will also execute other Hydro-electric Power Projects in the region with consent of the state government. The project is estimated to cost Rs.
At present, infrastructure works on the project site are under execution.
Drill Holes at various loca- tions totaling a length of metres as per recommendations of GSI have been made. About 76 hec- tares of land was acquired and acquisition proceedings for above hectares are underway. About 46 kms of roads have also been constructed. About sq. The project is expected to be completed within a period of about seven years and would yield benefits during the Eighth Plan.
It is a set of book keeping principles that enable us to understand and follow energy as it transformed from one form or state to the other. The zeroth law of thermodynamics was enunciated after the first law. It states that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Equilibrium implies the existence of a situation in which the system undergoes no net charge, and there is no net transfer of heat between the bodies. When one energy form is converted into another, the total amount of energy remains constant. An example of this law is a gasoline engine. The chemical energy in the fuel is converted into various forms including kinetic en- ergy of motion, potential energy, chemical energy in the carbon dioxide, and water of the exhaust gas.
The second law of thermodynamics is the entropy law, which says that all physical processes proceed in such a way that the availability of the energy involved decreases.
The second law declares that the material economy necessarily and unavoidably degrades the resources that sustain it. Entropy is a measure of disorder or chaos, when entropy increases disorder increases. The third law of thermodynamics is the law of unattainability of absolute zero temperature, which says that entropy of an ideal crystal at zero degrees Kelvin is zero. This law is not needed for most thermodynamic work, but is a reminder that like the efficiency of an ideal engine, there are absolute limits in physics.
The steam power plants works on modified rankine cycle in the case of steam engines and isentropic cycle concerned in the case of impulse and reaction steam turbines. In the case of I.Nw abt the book..
But in the case of fuel cell it is of the nature of chemical reaction i. The readers are also provided with variety of questions to help them prepare for the different patterns of questions. The super-thermal power stations are at Farakka, Ramagundam, Korba and Singrauli and these are supplying power for the past 20 years. Embeds 0 No embeds. Certified downloader , Kolkata.